INCAR ARCHITEX

Class Information

Class Number C_J 0451
Semester / Year Fall 2013
Class Title INCAR ARCHITEX
Class Description

The Architecture of Imprisonment explores the evolution of America's prison system and discusses its influence on society today.

Instructor Michael Santos
Office HSS 235
Office Hours

Thursdays, between 3:00 and 4:00 pm, Room HSS 235

Mobile Phone (415) 419-1728
Email santos45@sfsu.edu
Website www.michaelsantos.com

Objectives

Course Objectives

 

Students who participate in Criminal Justice 451, Architecture of Imprisonment, will gain a broad, practical understanding of how America’s prison system operates. By the end of the course, successful participants will:

  • Develop an understanding of America’s system of incarceration.
  • Develop an understanding of deterrence, rehabilitation, retribution, and incapacitation, as goals of incarceration; contrast goals of restorative justice with the stated goals of imprisonment..
  • Develop an understanding of differences and similarities between major correctional institutions, such as jails and prison, probation and parole.
  • Develop an understanding of how crime causation theories influence penal objectives, prison policies, and procedures.
  • Develop an understanding how America’s commitment to mass incarceration influences the broader society.
  • Develop an understanding of the social and economic consequences of the prison industrial complex.

 

 

Course Approach

Course Note


I will teach this course in a seminar format, beginning each class with a brief lecture to prompt what I hope will become a vibrant discussion. Participants should know that I was arrested on August 13, 1987. I lived as a federal prisoner for 26 years, until August 12, 2013. I will teach from literature as well as from personal experiences gleaned from being confined in prisons of every security level. Student discussion is an essential part of the course instruction. Accordingly, students may ask anything about my background, my experiences through prison, and my experiences upon release. Additionally, I will invite guest lecturers to provide different personal experiences with the prison system.

Materials

Title Required Notes
Earning Freedom: Conquering a 45-Year Prison Term Required

Author: Michael G. Santos (2013) / ISBN: 0-983-13408-1

Earning Freedom brings readers through my journey of more than a quarter century in prisons of every security level.

Inside: Life Behind Bars in America Required

Author: Michael G. Santos (2006) / ISBN: 0-312-34350-7

Provides a graphic look into the culture of imprisonment.

Policies

SFSU OFFICIAL - Disability Access Statement

Students with disabilities who need reasonable accommodations are encouraged to contact the instructor. The Disability Programs and Resource Center (DPRC) is available to facilitate the reasonable accommodations process. The DPRC is located in the Student Service Building and can be reached by telephone (voice/TTY 415-338-2472) or by email (dprc@sfsu.edu).

Attendance / participation

 

Criminal Justice 451 is a class that requires active participation. I divide the 2-hour and 45-minute class into three sessions of approximately 50 minutes each (flexible as needs arise). We will break for five minutes (flexible) after the first and second session. I will take attendance for each session. Both attendance and class participation will influence the grades students receive. (1 point per class session, 3 points total per class)

  • Session 1: 4:10 pm to 5:00 pm (1 point)
  • Session 2: 5:05 pm to 5:55 pm (1 point)
  • Session 3: 6:00 pm to 6:55 pm (1 point)

Total available attendance points: 48 (3 points each class for 16 classes)

Attendance counts for 20 percent of course grade

            A = 43 points or higher

            B = 38-42 points

            C = 33-37 points

            D = 28-32 points

 

Quizzes

 

One 10-question quiz during one session for each class. (10 points each quiz; No make-ups; I will drop the six lowest quiz scores.)

Total available quiz points: 100. Quizzes count for 20 percent of course grade.

            A = 90 or higher

            B = 80-89 points

            C = 70-79 points

            D = 60-69 points

Exams

This course will include a mid-term and a final exam based on the reading materials and lectures. I will provide a study guide for each exam.

Mid-term exam (October 17): 100 points. Counts for 20 percent of course grade

            A = 90 points or higher

            B = 80-89 points

            C = 70-79 points

            D = 60-69 points

Final exam (December 12): 100 points. Counts for 20 percent of course grade

            A = 90 points or higher

            B = 80-89 points

            C = 70-79 points

            D = 60-69 points

Term paper

This assignment requires students to write one term paper of between five- and seven double-spaced pages. After our third class, I will assign three different topics from which students can choose to write their term paper. Students may turn in the term paper any time prior to November 28.

Term paper worth 100 points: Counts for 20 percent of course grade.

            A = 90 points or higher

            B = 80-89 points

            C = 70-79 points

            D = 60-69 points

Grading Scale

Total points available in class: 443 points

            A = 398 points

            B = 354 points

            C = 310 points

            D = 264 points

Extra-credit assignments may be available throughout course.

Assignments

Assignment Value Notes
Week 1: August 29, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

Introduction

  • My Introduction / Student objectives
  • Course Introduction
  • History of Punishment: from torture, to hangings, to the penitentiary era (discuss Foucoult / Beccaria / Bentham)
  • Penal Colony: Norfolk Island / Alexander Macconochie
  • History of American Punishment
  • Corporal punishment / confinement
  • Post revolution population growth
  • Charlestown state prison, Quakers, Walnut Street Jail
  • 1820s penitentiary system (Pennsylvania system separate, Eastern State)
  • New York System (Auburn Congregate versus Pennsylvania Separate)
  • Prison work camps (Southern convict labor)
  • Intro Quiz
  • Assign reading of Inside through Chapter four, page 49 to discuss next week
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy speech to the American Bar Association calling for prison reform.
Week 2: September 5, 2013 Student Comment: 10 points

Crime causation theories

  • Conflict Theory: Conflict between groups within same culture, allocation of resources
  • Classical School: Bentham. Punishment proportional, fit crime, prompt
  • Locke and Hobbes
  • Beccaria: harm to society. Swift-certain punishment
  • Bentham: Man calculation. Greatest good to greatest number
  • Positivist: crime by internal and external factors outside individual’s control. Biological, psychological, social (Lombroso)
  • Purposes of imprisonment:
  • Incapacitation
  • Punishment
  • Deterrence
  • Rehabilitation
  • Effectiveness of prisons
  • Failing?
  • Succeeding?
  • Discuss Inside through chapter four
  • Government predictions of how many go to prison
  • Race and class influences
  • Small jail v large jail
  • Modern penitentiary culture
  • Quiz
  • Assigned reading: Inside, through chapter eight, page 101, to discuss next week.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: The Prison-Industrial Complex
Week 3: September 12, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

How We Got Here

  • Tough on Crime Movement
  • John Martinson: “Nothing Works”
  • James Q. Wilson: Thinking About Crime
  • John DiIulio: Governing Prisons
  • David Farabee: Rethinking Rehabilitation
  • No Frills Prison Act
  • Indeterminate sentencing
  • Parole boards
  • Determinate sentencing
  • Sentencing guidelines
  • Discuss Inside through chapter eight
  • Supermax
  • Weapons
  • Penitentiary influences
  • Segregated housing units
  • Quiz
  • Assigned reading: Inside, through chapter 11, page 155, to discuss next week.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: Overcoming Mass Incarceration
Week 4: September 19, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

Prison-population escalation

  • Historical trends of population levels
  • Costs of imprisonment
  • Per prisoner
  • As related to total spending
  • Influences on other spending
  • Political influences
  • War on drugs
  • Rockefeller
  • Mandatory-minimum sentences
  • Sentencing enhancements
  • Discuss Inside through chapter 11
  • Rape
  • Long-term imprisonment
  • Gangs
  • Corruption
  • Quiz
  • Assigned reading: Inside, through chapter 15, page 207, to discuss next week.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: Security Designation and Custody Classification
Week 5: September 26, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

Custody and classification

  • Presentence Investigation
  • Formulaic scoring
  • Static Factors
  • Dynamic Factors
  • Security levels
  • Design features of Supermax
  • Design features of Penitentiary / level four
  • Design features of Correctional Institution / levels two-three
  • Design features of camps / level one
  • Discuss Inside through chapter 15
  • Prison reputation
  • Prison perceptions
  • Pains of imprisonment
  • Quiz
  • Assign reading: Inside, through chapter 20, page 286, to discuss next week.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: Unit Management
Week 6: October 3, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

The Process

  • Designation
  • Geographical locations
  • Influences on family
  • Unit Management
  • Staff hierarchy and responsibilities
  • Transfers
  • Custody change
  • Programs
  • Disciplinary
  • Discuss Inside through chapter 20
  • Influence on family
  • Changing mentalities
  • Anticipations
  • Quiz
  • Assign reading: Earning Freedom, through chapter 1, page 56, to discuss later.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: The Horrible Psychology of Solitary Confinement

No Class next week

Week 7: October 10, 2013 (Reading Assignment only—No Class) Student comment: 10 Points

Discipline

  • Code of disciplinary infractions
  • Series of infractions
  • Penalties
  • Due process
  • Timeliness
  • Investigation
  • Hearing and adjudication
  • Sanctions
  • Collateral consequences
  • Discuss Earning Freedom through chapter 1
  • Initial intake
  • Pretrial proceedings
  • Coping with confinement
  • Quiz
  • Assign reading: Earning Freedom, through chapter 2, page 84, to discuss next week.
  • Mid-term study guide
Week 8: October 17, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

Administrative Remedy

  • Mid-term
  • Multiple choice / true-false / essay
  • Grievance procedures
  • Process and hurdles
  • Informal resolutions
  • Formal filing and appeals
  • Civil action and challenges
  • Discuss Earning Freedom through chapter 2
  • Prisoner transport
  • Holdover
  • Survival strategy
  • Quiz
  • Assign reading: Earning Freedom, through chapter 3, page 122, to discuss next week.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: A Sunny Deposition
Week 9: October 24, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

Prison Litigation over conditions of confinement

  • Medical care
  • Process
  • Deliberate indifference
  • Exhaustion of administrative remedies
  • Compliance with time limits
  • Filing fees and costs
  • Three strikes provisions
  • Frivolous
  • Malicious
  • Failing to state a claim
  • California litigation
  • Madrid –v- Gomez
  • Brown –v- Plata
  • Discuss Earning Freedom through chapter 3
  • Work details
  • Extinguishing hope
  • Ongoing anguish and alienation
  • Quiz
  • Assign reading: Earning Freedom, through chapter 4, page 147, to discuss next week.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: Justices, 5-4, Tell California to Cut Prisoner Population

 

Week 10: October 31, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

California’s Realignment

  • Prison to jail
  • Non, non, non
  • Community resources
  • Reentry programs
  • Allocation of resources
  • Building more capacity
  • Treatment
  • Discuss Earning Freedom through chapter 4
  • Planning
  • Mentor
  • Network
  • Quiz
  • Assign reading: Earning Freedom, through chapter 6, page 182, to discuss next week.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: Evidence Based Correctional Practices
Week 11: November 7, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

Lowering Recidivism

  • Norval Morris
  • Future of Imprisonment
  • Francis Cullen
  • Assessing Correctional Rehabilitation
  • Joan Petersilia
  • When Prisoner’s Come Home
  • Discuss Earning Freedom through chapter 6
  • Warden Dennis Luther
  • John DiIulio
  • Thesis
  • Quiz
  • Assign reading: Earning Freedom, through chapter 7, page 210, to discuss next week.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: Lowering Recidivism
Week 12: November 14, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

Engineering Success

  • Tools to guide
  • Risk/needs assessments
  • Individual motivators
  • Target the appropriate intervention
  • Cognitive-behavioral strategies
  • Increase positive reinforcement
  • Ongoing support
  • Discuss Earning Freedom through chapter 7
  • Warden Luther
  • Management/Leadership in prison setting
  • Transfer
  • Quiz
  • Assign reading: Earning Freedom, through chapter 8, page 244, to discuss next week.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: Judge on Mandatory Minimum Sentencing
Week 13: November 21, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

Inside/Outside Connections

  • Prison Populations
  • Racial / ethnic / educational backgrounds
  • Gender
  • Media interactions
  • Staff
  • Prisoner
  • Collateral Consequences of Imprisonment
  • Jobs
  • Housing
  • Credit
  • Discuss Earning Freedom through chapter 8
  • Coping with reality
  • New focus
  • Low-security
  • Quiz
  • Assign reading: Earning Freedom, through chapter 9, page 274, to discuss next week.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: Just like Selling Hamburgers: Private Prisons
Week 14: November 28, 2013 (Thanksgiving--no class meeting) Student comment: 10 points

Private Prisons (Home assignment)

  • Origins of industry
  • Growth
  • Lobbying
  • Immigration
  • Real estate
  • Discuss Earning Freedom through chapter 9
  • Preparing for release
  • Business / career building inside
  • Security of the Institution
  • Quiz
  • Assign reading: Earning Freedom, through chapter 10, page 311, to discuss next week.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: When Prisoners Return to the Community
Week 15: December 5, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

Collateral Consequences

  • Second Chance Act
  • Congressional findings
  • Community Confinement
  • Halfway house
  • Home Confinement
  • Day Reporting Centers
  • Supervised Release
  • Discuss Earning Freedom through chapter 10
  • Community ties
  • Family values in prison
  • Quiz
  • Assign reading: Earning Freedom, through chapter 11, page 339, to discuss next week.
  • Suggested reading for next week’s discussion: Final Exam Study Guide
Week 16: December 12, 2013 Student comment: 10 points

Open Discussion / Current events

Final exam

Open discussion

Schedules

Date Notes Due
10/10/13

No class meeting (take-home assignments)

10/17/13

Mid-term exam (100 points)

11/28/13

Thanksgiving: No class in session, take-home assignments

Term paper due (100 points)

12/12/13

Final exam (100 points)